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Publications CAN/CSA-F378 SERIES-11 (R2016)

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CAN/CSA-F378 SERIES-11 (R2016) - Solar collectors

Publication Year:

  • 2011

Total Pages:

98

Reaffirmed Year:

  • 2016

Publisher:

  • CSA

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Update #1 was published as notification that this is now a National Standard of Canada.

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Preface

This is the first edition of the CSA F378 Series, Solar collectors, which is comprised of F378.1, Glazed and unglazed liquid heating solar collectors - Test methods and F378.2, Air heating solar collectors - Test methods. It replaces the previous edition of CSA F378, Solar Collectors, published in 1987.

F378.1-11 - Glazed and unglazed liquid heating solar collectors - Test methods

Scope

1.1
This Standard specifies a set of technical requirements and test methods for glazed and unglazed liquid heating solar collectors and covers operating performance and marking requirements.

1.2
This Standard applies to glazed and unglazed liquid heating solar collectors used for converting solar radiation into thermal energy by heating a liquid flowing through the collector. It covers only solar collectors with an aperture area of not less than 0.5 m2. Typical applications for the solar collectors covered by this Standard include their use in systems for heating domestic water, heating swimming pools, and for space heating or cooling.

1.3
This Standard covers glazed and unglazed liquid heating solar collectors capable of being tested as independent units with forced circulation of the heat transfer liquid. It also applies to solar collectors designed for site assembly, surface mounting, or rack mounting. Scaled-down versions of large solar collectors may be tested provided that appropriate test parameters are tested and that the test specimen is constructed to ensure that the test results will as far as possible be applicable to the installed unit.

1.4
This Standard is intended to apply to solar collectors that use a liquid as a heat transfer medium (i.e., liquid heating solar collectors) including the following types of solar collectors:

(a) glazed flat plate liquid heating solar collectors;

(b) glazed vacuum tube or vacuum envelope liquid heating solar collectors;

(c) unglazed flat plate liquid heating solar collectors;

(d) integral collector storage (ICS) systems with time constants of less than 30 min; and

(e) concentrating solar collectors with an acceptance angle greater than 60°.

1.5
This Standard does not apply to the following liquid heating solar collectors:

(a) where the liquid heated is intended to change phase (e.g., boils) in the solar collector and has the potential to exit the collector as a two-phase mixture of liquid and vapour;

(b) concentrating solar collectors with an acceptance angle less than 60 °; and

(c) ICS collectors with time constant of 30 min or greater.

Note: Solar collectors with an integral heat transfer fluid that boils and condenses within a solar collector and transfer heat to a single phase liquid heat transfer fluid (e.g., a boiling/condensing collector) may be evaluated by this Standard, but the limited applicability of the results should be noted. For guidance in testing this type of solar collector see Annex A.

1.6
This Standard does not cover air heating solar collectors or the installation or mounting of solar collectors; neither does it cover the tracking mechanism of sun-following collector systems nor any other part of a solar energy collecting system. This Standard does not cover all of the aspects of collectors that generate electricity as well as heat liquid; however, the thermal aspects of these types of collectors may be evaluated in accordance with this Standard.

For solar collectors that use air as a heat transfer medium refer to CSA F378.2, Air heating solar collectors - Test methods.

1.7
Compliance of a glazed or unglazed liquid heating solar collector with this Standard might not completely define its suitability for an intended application. Specifically, this Standard

(a) does not define minimum values for the solar collector thermal efficiency;

(b) does not define thermal performance testing for solar collectors to be used in passive systems with convective circulation of the heat transfer medium. Testing of the liquid heating solar collector for thermal performance by appropriate procedures not included in this Standard should be considered by the user for such applications;

(c) does not address issues related to solar collector array performance; and

(d) does not evaluate the suitability and durability of the materials used in solar collectors.

1.8
In CSA standards, "shall" is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; "should" is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and "may" is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (nonmandatory) to define their application.

1.9
The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. Any values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.

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F378.2-11 - Air heating solar collectors - Test methods

Scope

1.1
This Standard specifies a set of technical requirements, test methods, and repeatable test conditions for air heating solar collectors. It also covers operating, performance, and marking requirements.

1.2
This Standard applies to glazed and unglazed air heating solar collectors used for converting solar radiation into thermal energy by heating air flowing through the collector. It covers only solar collectors with an aperture area of not less than 1.5 m2. Typical applications for the air heating solar collectors covered by this Standard include their use in systems for direct space heating, combustion air heating, crop drying, and ventilation air pre-heating.

1.3
This Standard covers glazed and unglazed air heating solar collectors capable of being tested as independent units operated in open- or closed-loop systems with either positive or negative pressure applied. It also applies to installation-dependent solar collectors such as those designed for site assembly, surface mounting, or rack mounting. This Standard does not address durability, reliability, and thermal performance testing of site-built collectors in their actual form; however, it does permit a module with comparable structure and a gross area of at least 4 m2 to be tested as a substitute for the site-built collector. If a substitute module is tested, the substitute module test results can be legitimately applied to modules of the same size as, or larger than, the tested substitute module.

1.4
This Standard is intended to apply to solar collectors that use air as a heat transfer medium including the following types of solar collectors:

(a) glazed closed-loop recirculated air heating solar collectors;

(b) unglazed closed-loop recirculated air heating solar collectors;

(c) glazed open-loop ambient air heating solar collectors; and

(d) unglazed open-loop ambient air heating solar collectors.

Solar air collectors constructed with more than one inlet and one outlet may be tested using the requirements of this Standard if the inlets and outlets can be structured so as to provide effectively a single outlet.

1.5
This Standard does not cover liquid heating solar collectors, concentrating collectors, or the installation or mounting of solar collectors; neither does it cover the tracking mechanism of sun-following collector systems nor any other part of a solar collecting system. This Standard does not cover all of the aspects of collectors that generate electricity, as well as heat air. However, the thermal aspects of these types of collectors may be evaluated in accordance with this Standard. For solar collectors that use liquid as a heat transfer medium see CSA F378.1.

1.6
Compliance of a glazed or unglazed air heating solar collector with this Standard may not completely define its suitability for an intended application. Specifically, this Standard

(a) does not define minimum values for the solar collector thermal efficiency;

(b) does not define thermal performance testing for solar collectors to be used in passive systems with convective circulation of the heat transfer medium;

(c) does not address the issue of solar collector array performance; and

(d) does not evaluate the suitability and durability of the materials used in solar collectors.

1.7
In CSA standards, "shall" is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; "should" is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and "may" is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (nonmandatory) to define their application.

1.8
The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. Any values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.

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